AACM Notation

Modern Indian Music Notation

as developed at the Ali Akbar College of Music

Shudha = Natural
Tivra = Sharp
Komal = Flat

The notes of the octave have names that are abbreviated into single letters. The upper case print: “G” or “GA” means natural and is called “Shudha G”. There is only one sharp or Tivra note and that is “Tivra MA ” – the sharpened 4th. The Natural 4th is called “Shudha ma”.
Lower case print means flatted – “Komal g”.

The names of the notes in the twelve note octave from India music, and Western music.

SHRUTI NAME

INDIAN
NOTATION

WESTERN
NOTATION

SOLFEGE

Shadaj ———–

SA – S

C

DOH

Komal Rishabh —

re – r

Db or C#

Rishabh ———-

RE – R

D

RE

Komal Ghandar —

ga – g

Eb or D#

Ghandar ———

GA – G

E

MI

Madhayam ——

ma – m

F

FA

Tivra Madhayam –

MA – M

Gb or F#

Pancham ——–

PA – P

G

SOL

Komal Dhaiwat —

dha – d

Ab or G#

Dhaiwat ———

DHA – D

A

LA

Komal Nishad —

ni – n

Bb or A#

Nishad ———-

NI – N

B

TI

Shadaj ———-

SA – S

C

DOH

The TEN THAATS of North Indian Classical Music

Bilawal  —-

SRGmPDNS

Khamaj —-

SRGmPDnS

Kafi ——–

SRgmPDnS

Asavari —-

SRgmPdnS

Bhairavi —

SrgmPdnS

Bhairav —-

SrGmPdNS

Kalyan —–

SRGMPDNS

Todi  ——-  

SrgMPdNS

Purbi ——-

SrGMpdNS

Marwa —–

SrGMPDNS

                        .         .
A dot above a note means Upper Octave (Taar).   GA or G

A dot below a note means Lower Octave (Mandra).    GA                                                         
˙
Two dots below means 2 octaves below Middle Octave.      GA
                                                       ˙˙
No dots means Middle Octave (Madhaya)   GA

Three Octaves of Bilawal That

In the modern notation system the beats are marked with a scoop underneath. Each beat can be divided of into micro-beats of: one, two, three, four, or more micro-beats.  Below is an melodic example in Bilawal Thaat. It is in the 8 beat rhythm cycle (Tala) called Kahava.
Kahava has two tals of 4 beats each. The first beat is Sum –  the struck beat which is marked with 
+and is shown with a clap of the hands. In Kahava the half way beat (fifth beat) is Kali – the unstruck beat which is marked with O,  and is shown by a wave of the hands. The phrase marks show a syncopated figure of: 123’123’123’123’1234, an often used sixteen note rhythmic pattern.

    

Below is a melodic example in Bhaivav That. It is in a seven beat rhythm cycle called Roopak. In Roopak the first bar of 3 beats is Kali Tal. It is shown with “0” over the first beat.  The second and third tals of 2 beats each are marked with a “2” and “3” respectively.

        

There are several hundred talas and new ones are still being composed. Some of the most common are:

Tintal 16 beats 4+4+4+4
Jhaptal 10 beats 2+3+2+3
Roopak tal 7 beats 3+2+2
Kahava tal 8 beats 4+4
Ektal 12 beats 2+2+2+2+2+2
Dadra tal 6 beats 3+3
Chowtal 12 beats, 2+2+2+2+2+2
Charchar tal 14 beats 3+4+3+4
Dhammar tal 14 beats,  5+2+3+4
Sitarkhani tal 16 beats 4+4+4+4  (each tal has syncopated 8th note 3-3-2 beat pattern)

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